Cover image for The Earth book : from the beginning to the end of our planet, 250 milestones in the history of earth science / Jim Bell.
Title:
The Earth book : from the beginning to the end of our planet, 250 milestones in the history of earth science / Jim Bell.
ISBN:
9781454929109
Publication Information:
New York : Sterling, an imprint of Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., [2019]

©2019
Physical Description:
528 pages : illustrations (chiefly color), color maps ; 22 cm
Abstract:
Explores 250 wide-ranging milestones in the history of the planet Earth, including the birth of the moon, the oldest signs of life on Earth, the first mines, the invention of agriculture, women in earth science, reaching the South Pole, planet genetics, earthlike exoplanets, and rising CO₂ levels. Some of the key scientists and inventors from around the world who have shaped our modern understanding of planet Earth, such as Leonardo da Vinci and Johannes Kepler, are also included.
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Summary

Summary

A beautifully illustrated presentation of 250 milestones in the history of our home planet, from celebrated geologist and planetary scientist Jim Bell.

Spanning Earth's entire history, from its birth 4.6 billion years ago to its inevitable destruction billions of years into the future, this stunning volume chronicles the life of our home planet in 250 well-chosen milestones. Jim Bell leads us on a tour of the events, processes, people, and places that have shaped our growing knowledge of Earth, from the oceans' formation and the first perilous polar expeditions to deadly volcanoes and Earth "selfies" from space. He covers relevant topics in a range of fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, geology, mineralogy, planetary science, life science, public policy, atmospheric/climate science, and engineering, along with notes on key scientists and inventors. At a time when it's crucial to understand Earth as a complex interdependent system, and our role in that system, The Earth Book will enhance your appreciation of our home.


Author Notes

Dr. Jim Bell is a professor of geology and planetary science in Arizona State University's School of Earth and Space Exploration in Tempe, AZ, and an adjunct professor in the Department of Astronomy at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. Jim is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the Geological Society of America. As President of The Planetary Society, he is a prolific public commentator on science and space exploration, earning the 2011 Carl Sagan Medal from the American Astronomical Society for excellence in public communication of planetary science. Jim has appeared on numerous radio and television shows, including NBC's Today Show and PBS's NewsHour , as well as programs on the Discovery, National Geographic, and History cable channels, and has been interviewed for several space-related documentary films. He is the author of The Ultimate Interplanetary Travel Guide , The Space Book, Mars 3-D, Moon 3-D, The Interstellar Age, and Postcards from Mars .


Table of Contents

Introductionp. 8
Acknowledgmentsp. 13
c. 4.5 Billion BCE Earth Is Bornp. 14
c. 4.5 Billion BCE Earth's Core Formsp. 16
c. 4.5 Billion Birth of the Moonp. 18
c. 4.5 Billion BCE Earth's Mantle and Magma Oceanp. 20
c. 4.5-4 Billion BCE The Hadeanp. 22
c. 4.1 Billion BCE Late Heavy Bombardmentp. 24
c. 4.5 Billion BCE Continental Crustp. 26
c. 4 Billion BCE Earth's Oceansp. 28
c. 4-2.5 Billion BCE The Archeanp. 30
c. 4-23 Billion BCE? Plate Tectonicsp. 32
c. 3.8 Billion BCE? Life on Earthp. 34
c. 3.7 Billion BCE Stromatolitesp. 36
c. 3.5 Billion BCE Greenstone Beltsp. 38
c. 3.4 Billion BCE Photosynthesisp. 40
c. 3-1.8 Billion BCE Banded Iron Formationsp. 42
c. 2.5 Billion BCE The Great Oxidationp. 44
c. 2 Billion BCE Eukaryotesp. 46
c. 1.2 Billion BCE The Origin of Sexp. 48
c. 1 Billion BCE Complex Multicellular Organismsp. 50
c. 720-635 Million BCE Snowball Earth?p. 52
c. 550 Million BCE Cambrian Explosionp. 54
c. 500 Million BCE Roots of the Pyrénéesp. 56
c. 480 Million BCE The Appalachiansp. 58
c. 470 Million BCE First Land Plantsp. 60
c. 450 Million BCE Mass Extinctionsp. 62
c. 375 Million BCE First Animals on Landp. 64
c. 320 Million BCE The Ural Mountainsp. 66
c. 320 Million BCE Reptilesp. 68
c. 300 Million BCE The Atlas Mountainsp. 70
c. 300 Million BCE Pangeap. 72
c. 252 Million BCE The Great Dyingp. 74
c. 220 Million BCE Mammalsp. 76
c. 200 Million BCE Triassic Extinctionp. 78
c. 200-65 Million BCE Age of the Dinosaursp. 80
c. 160 Million BCE The First Birdsp. 82
c. 155 Million BCE The Sierra Nevadap. 84
c. 140 Million BCE The Atlantic Oceanp. 86
c. 130 Million BCE Flowersp. 88
c. 80 Million BCE The Rockiesp. 90
c. 70 Million BCE The Himalayasp. 92
c. 66 Million BCE Deccan Trapsp. 94
c. 65 Million BCE The Alpsp. 96
c. 65 Million BCE Dinosaur-Killing Impactp. 98
c. 60 Million BCE Primatesp. 100
c. 35 Million BCE Antarcticap. 102
c. 30 Million BCE East African Rift Zonep. 104
c. 30-20 Million BCE Advanced C4 Photosynthesisp. 106
c. 30-10 Million BCE Cascade Volcanoesp. 108
c. 28 Million BCE Hawaiian Islandsp. 110
c. 10 Million BCE The Andesp. 112
c. 10 Million BCE First Horninidsp. 114
c. 7 Million BCE Sahara Desertp. 116
c. 6-5 Million BCE The Grand Canyonp. 118
c. 6-5 Million BCE The Mediterranean Seap. 120
c. 5.5 Million BCE The Caspian and Black Seasp. 122
c. 5 Million BCE Galápagos Islandsp. 124
c. 3.4 Million BCE to 3300 BCE The Stone Agep. 126
c. 3 Million BCE The Dead Seap. 128
c. 2 Million BCE Death Valleyp. 130
c. 400,000 BCE Lake Victoriap. 132
c. 200,000 BCE Homo sapiens Emergesp. 134
c. 70,000 BCE The San Peoplep. 136
c. 50,000 BCE Arizona Impactp. 138
c. 40,000 BCE The First Minesp. 140
c. 38,000 BCE La Brea Tar Pitsp. 142
c. 30 000 BCE Domestication of Animalsp. 144
c. 10,000 BCE Invention of Agriculturep. 146
c. 10,000 BCE End of the East "Ice Age"p. 148
c. 9000 BCE Beringia Land Bridgep. 150
c. 8000 BCE The Great Lakesp. 152
c. 7000 BCE Fermentation of Beer and Winep. 154
c. 6000 BCE fertilizerp. 156
c. 3300-1200 BCE The Bronze Agep. 158
c. 3200 BCE Synthetic Pigmentsp. 160
c. 3000 BCE Oldest Living Treesp. 162
c. 3000 BCE Stonehengep. 164
c. 3000 BCE The Spice Tradep. 166
c. 2500 BCE The Pyramidsp. 168
c. 2000 BCE Magnetitep. 170
c. 1200-500 BCE The Iron Agep. 172
c. 800 BCE Aqueductsp. 174
c. 600 BCE First World Mapsp. 176
c. 500 BCE The Earth Is Round!p. 178
c. 500 BCE Madagascarp. 180
c. 300 BCE Quartzp. 182
c. 300 BCE Great Library of Alexandriap. 184
c. 280 BCE A Sun-Centered Cosmosp. 186
c. 250 BCE Size of the Earthp. 188
79 Pompeiip. 190
c. 700-1200 Polynesian Diasporap. 192
c. 1000 Mayan Astronomyp. 194
c. 1370-1640 Great Wall of Chinap. 196
c. 1400 Native American Creation Storiesp. 198
c. 1500 The Little Ice Agep. 200
c. 1500 Civil Engineeringp. 202
1519 Circumnavigating the Globep. 204
1541 Amazon Riverp. 206
1600 Many Earths?p. 208
1600 Iluaynaputina Eruptionp. 210
1619 Laws of Planetary Motionp. 212
1669 Foundations of Geologyp. 214
1686 Tidesp. 216
1687 Gravityp. 218
1747 Feldsparp. 220
1769 Transit of Venusp. 222
1788 Unconformitiesp. 224
1789 Olivinep. 226
1791 Desalinationp. 228
1794 Rocks from Spacep. 230
1798 Population Growthp. 232
1802-1805 Platinum Croup Metalsp. 234
1804 Charting North Americap. 236
1811 Reading the Fossil Recordp. 238
1814 Sunlight Decipheredp. 240
1815 Mount Tambora Eruptionp. 242
1815 Modern Geologic Mapsp. 244
1830 Uniformitarianismp. 246
c. 1830 Industrial Revolutionp. 248
1837 Discovering Ice Agesp. 250
1845 Birth of Environmentalismp. 252
1851 Proof that the Earth Spinsp. 254
c. 1855-1870 Deforestationp. 256
1858-1859 Natural Selectionp. 258
1858 Airborne Remote Sensingp. 260
1859 Solar Marcs and Space Weatherp. 262
1862 The Age of the Earthp. 264
1864 (Geo) Science Fictionp. 266
1869 Exploring the Grand Canyonp. 268
c. 1870 The Anthropocenep. 270
1870 Soil Sciencep. 272
1872 National Parksp. 274
1879 The US Geological Surveyp. 276
1883 Krakaloa Eruptionp. 278
1892 The Sierra Clubp. 280
1896 The Greenhouse Effectp. 282
1896 Radioactivityp. 284
1896 Structure of the Atmospherep. 286
1896 Women in Earth Sciencep. 288
1900 Galveston Hurricanep. 290
1902 Controlling the Nilep. 292
1906 San Francisco Earthquakep. 294
1906 Hunting for Meteoritesp. 296
1908 The Tunguska Explosionp. 298
1909 Reaching the North Polep. 300
1910 Big Burn Wildfirep. 302
1911 Reaching the South Polep. 304
1911 Machu Picchup. 306
1912 Continental Driftp. 308
1913 The Ozone Layerp. 310
1914 The Panama Canalp. 312
1915 Exploring Katmaip. 314
1921 Russian Faminep. 316
1925 Tri-State Tornadop. 318
1926 Liquid-Fueled Rocketsp. 320
1926 Exploration by Aviationp. 322
1933 Angel Fallsp. 324
1934 Geology of Coralsp. 326
1935 Dust Bowlp. 328
1936 The Inner Corep. 330
1937 Landfillsp. 332
1943 Exploring the Oceansp. 334
1943 Sky Islandsp. 336
1945 Geosynchronous Satellitesp. 338
1946 Cloud Seedingp. 340
1947 Weather Radarp. 342
1948 Tracing Human Originsp. 344
1949 Island Arcsp. 346
1953 Ascending Everestp. 348
1954 Nuclear Powerp. 350
1957 Mapping the Seafloorp. 352
1957 Sputnikp. 354
1957-1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY)p. 356
1958 Earth's Radiation Beltsp. 358
1960 Weather Satellitesp. 360
1960 Understanding Impact Cratersp. 362
1960 Mariana Trenchp. 364
1960 Valdivia Earthquakep. 366
1961 Humans in Spacep. 368
1961 Terraformingp. 370
1963 Reversing Magnetic Polarityp. 372
1966 Endosymbiosisp. 374
1966 Earth Selfiesp. 376
1967 Extremophilesp. 378
1968 Leaving Earth's Gravityp. 380
1970 Meteorites and Lifep. 382
1970 Earth Dayp. 384
1972 Earth Science Satellitesp. 386
1972 Geology on the Moonp. 388
1973 Seafloor Spreadingp. 390
1973 Tropical Rain/Cloud Forestsp. 392
1973 Global Positioning Systemp. 394
1975 Insect Migrationp. 396
1975 Magnetic Navigationp. 398
1976 Temperate Rainforestsp. 400
1977 Voyager Golden Recordp. 402
1977 Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Ventsp. 404
1978 Wind Powerp. 406
1979 A World Wide Webp. 408
1980 Mount St. Helens Eruptionp. 410
1980 Extinction Impact Hypothesisp. 412
1981 Great Barrier Reefp. 414
1982 Genetic Engineering of Cropsp. 416
1982 Basin and Rangep. 418
1982 Solar Powerp. 420
1982 Volcanic Explosivity Indexp. 422
1983 Gorillas in the Mintp. 424
1983 Plant Geneticsp. 426
1984 The Oscillating Magnetospherep. 428
1985 Underwater Archaeologyp. 430
1986 Chernobyl Disasterp. 432
1987 California Condorsp. 434
1987 Yucca Mountainp. 436
1988 Light Pollutionp. 438
1988 Chimpanzeesp. 440
1991 Biosphere 2p. 442
1991 Mount Pinatubo Eruptionp. 444
1992 Tundrap. 446
1993 Boreal Forests (Taiga)p. 448
1993 Oceanography from Spacep. 450
1994 Hydroelectric Powerp. 452
1995 Earthlike Exoplanetsp. 454
1997 Large Animal Migrationsp. 456
1998 Ocean Conservationp. 458
1999 Earth's Spin Slows Over Timep. 460
1999 Torino Impact Hazard Scalep. 462
1999 Vargas Landslidep. 464
2004 Sumatran Earthquake and Tsunamip. 466
2004 Grasslands and Chaparralp. 468
2007 Carbon Footprintp. 470
2008 Global Seed Vaultp. 472
2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruptionp. 474
2011 Building Bridgesp. 476
2011 Temperate Deciduous Forestsp. 478
2012 Lake Vostokp. 480
2013 Savannap. 482
2013 Rising CO 2p. 484
2016 Long-Duration Space Travelp. 486
2017 North American Solar Eclipsep. 488
2029 Apophis Near Missp. 490
¿2050 Settlements on Mars?p. 492
¿2100 End of Fossil Fuels?p. 494
¿50,000 Next Ice Age?p. 496
¿100,000 Yellowstone Supervolcanop. 498
¿100,000-200,000 Loihip. 500
¿500,000 Next Big Asteroid Impact?p. 502
¿250 Million Pangea Proximap. 504
¿600 Million Last Total Solar Eclipsep. 506
¿1 Bullion Earth's Oceans Evaporatep. 508
¿2-3 Billion Earths Core Solidifiesp. 510
¿5 Billion The End of the Earthp. 512
GSA Geologic Timescalep. 514
Notes and Further Readingp. 516
Indexp. 524
Photo Creditsp. 528